Ketogenic diet

what is the keto diet

The ketogenic (ketogenic) diet is a novel trend in dietary nutrition. The ketogenic diet began to grow in popularity in 2017 and continues to this day.

The ketogenic diet is an approach to a healthy lifestyle. Preference is given to natural food products according to the needs of the human body with the presence of fats and the lowest content of carbohydrates.

The ketogenic diet is an updated version of the low-carb diet.

Ketogenic Diet Principles

The main principle of the ketogenic diet is low carbohydrate foods. The ketogenic diet relies on the body's processing of fatty acids. The breakdown of animal fat that enters the body with food without carbohydrate interference is the key to a healthy diet with this method.

The low carb ketogenic diet is very popular with obese people who want to lose weight or stay in shape.

With a minimal or complete absence of carbohydrates in the body, the burning of fat occurs rapidly, a person begins to lose weight. Fats begin to be eliminated from the body and processed into fatty acids and then into the ketogenic body.

Ketone bodies are fat breakdown products produced by the liver. With active expenditure of energy or prolonged fasting, for energy, the body begins to break down its own stored fat.

The breakdown of fat and the formation of ketone bodies is called ketogenesis and is a completely natural process for the human body. Ketogenesis does not lead to drastic weight loss.

Characteristics of the ketogenic diet

Keto diet features

A characteristic of the ketogenic diet is the replacement of the supplied energy resource, carbohydrates by fats, or rather decomposition products, ketone bodies. To reorganize the body and depending on individual characteristics, it is necessary to reduce the amount of carbohydrates consumed from 50 to 20 grams per day. It will take 2 to 4 weeks for the body to fully adapt to the new nutritional system. The maximum form of fat burning is achieved by following a balanced diet.

A distinctive feature of the ketogenic diet from other types of diets is the limited amount of carbohydrates in the body, the low protein content, and the presence of fats. The daily intake of carbohydrates in food should not exceed 20 grams per day. Ketones, the by-products of animal fats that the body uses for energy, must have a 2-to-1 ratio of fat to protein and carbohydrates. To maintain normal metabolism, the body must receive large amounts of fat. 75% of the calories in your daily diet should come from fat, the rest are carbohydrates and proteins. The caloric intake of products per day should not exceed 5000 kcal. The diet does not limit the time of eating, you can safely eat after 18 hours.

The less a person consumes carbohydrate-rich foods, the more effective the diet is in suppressing hunger.
The main part of the daily diet should be fat, followed by protein, and last but not least carbohydrates. The peculiarity of this diet, unlike others, is that the salt intake is not limited here, which restores the electrolyte balance.

In the first days of the diet, you should gradually reduce the amount of carbohydrates consumed.

With the strict principle of adherence to the ketogenic diet for weight loss, a person can easily lose 3 to 5 kilograms of weight in a month without damaging their health and reducing the amount of adipose tissue.

Athletes are more likely to stick to a cyclical ketogenic diet, burn fat, their bodies become more prominent, and increase muscle mass. The reason for this change lies in the transformation of the hormonal background and the increase in the process of formation of growth hormone. The principle of the diet is strictly regulated with the training plan.

Benefits of the ketogenic diet

keto diet benefits

The benefits of the ketogenic diet have already been scientifically tested and approved by nutritionists. In addition to losing or maintaining weight, it improves the condition of the skin, hair, nails, normalizes food metabolism, improves metabolism, and increases immunity.

Studies have shown that overweight people with high cholesterol who followed a ketogenic diet for 56 weeks not only lost more than 25 kilograms, but also significantly improved their blood sugar and cholesterol levels.

With caution, doctors recommend following a diet for cancer patients. It is well known that cancer cells actively feed on glucose, completely excluding them from the diet and sticking to a carbohydrate-free diet, diseased cells gradually lose their activity.

For lovers of independent weight loss, without a prescription, the easiest diet option is suitable: the keto lifestyle.

The ketogenic diet is widely used among athletes in sports that require high endurance: marathon, triathlon, cycling, extreme sports.

The diet promotes the burning of fat for the efficient production of an energy source, thus contributing to the conservation and economic consumption of glycogen (animal starch) during prolonged intense exertion.

The obvious benefits of a ketogenic diet are an overall improvement in well-being, emotional mood, a surge of energy, increased efficiency, and increased brain activity.

The ketogenic diet is more of a healthy diet, but only healthy people can follow it on their own. Before starting such a diet, you should consult with a specialist, he will tell you what difficulties there may be and the best way to get out of it in case of deterioration of health.

Disadvantages of the ketogenic diet

Disadvantages of the ketogenic diet

Compared to other weight loss diets, the ketogenic diet is more effective, but long-term adherence can have different consequences.

The downside of the ketogenic diet is that it is not suitable for everyone. When glucose levels are low, the body's glycogen stores are depleted. With a sharp transition from a regular diet to a ketogenic diet, many people experience dizziness, weakness, drowsiness, and coordination difficulties.

If you experience the following symptoms, you should stop following the ketogenic diet:

  • reduced performance and altered concentration;
  • increased fatigue;
  • unpleasant acrid smell of acetone from mouth;
  • difficulties with the digestion process;
  • poor blood counts;
  • frequent urination;
  • persistent dry mouth;
  • decreased appetite.
  • deficiency of minerals and vitamins in the body.

Against the background of high-fat ketone nutrition, there may be excess ammonia in the blood, leading to toxic intoxication of the body and alteration of hormone levels.

In the first week of the diet, you may feel chills or fever, fatigue, mild nausea, irritability. You need to drink as much water as possible. Symptoms generally disappear within a week and the body gradually adjusts for energy from fat stores.

To adjust the nutrition, special test strips are used, which show the level of ketones and glucose in the blood.

List of foods allowed and prohibited in the ketogenic diet

Eating this way should be approached with caution. There is a specific list of allowed and prohibited foods on the ketogenic diet.

list of allowed and prohibited products

First, let's take a look at what you can eat on the ketogenic diet:

  1. You can eat all kinds of meat: beef, pork, chicken, turkey, bacon.
  2. It is allowed to eat shellfish and all fatty fish: salmon, chum salmon, mackerel.
  3. A wide range of dairy products: fatty cottage cheese and yogurt, cream, cheese, butter.
  4. You can add any seasoning during cooking. Vegetable salads can be flavored with olive oil or vegetable oil.
  5. Nuts, berries and seeds are allowed as a snack.
  6. Of allowed fruits: avocado, lemon, lime, but if you want something different, it is quite acceptable.
  7. Chicken eggs.
  8. Mushrooms.
  9. The diet should contain water, unsweetened tea, coffee, mineral water. You should drink at least 2 liters of liquid a day.
  10. You can drink dry wine and strong alcohol: a glass of dry wine does not contain more than 4-5 grams of carbohydrates, and they are completely absent in vodka.
  11. Of vegetables, preference is given to low-carbohydrate vegetables, according to the principle: what grows in the ground can not be (carrots, beets, potatoes), and what can be above the ground (cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, zucchini, green onions, lettuce). All fatty foods go well with vegetables.

Don't go on a ketogenic diet:

  • all kinds of legumes and cereals: peas, beans, kidney beans, corn;
  • low-fat dairy products: low-fat cottage cheese, milk, cream, yogurt, fermented baked milk, yogurts, kefir, varenets;
  • sugar, sugary drinks, reconstituted juices, soft drinks, sweets;
  • it is unacceptable to use sandwiches, chips and crackers;
  • all starchy vegetables: potatoes, pumpkin;
  • will have to give up rice, cereals and pasta;
  • foods made with white flour: pastries, muffins, croissants, buns, pasta.

It is necessary to completely eliminate the consumption of sugar, some fruits and nuts.

Contraindications of the ketogenic diet

contraindications to the ketogenic diet

People with diseases of the nervous system, with diseases that accompany the destruction of nerve cells, diabetes patients need to be approached carefully to address nutritional problems.

There are contraindications to the ketogenic diet for humans:

  • suffers from epilepsy;
  • diseases associated with disorders of the motor organs;
  • the presence of any chronic disease of the liver, kidneys;
  • gastrointestinal tract;
  • atherosclerosis;
  • with high cholesterol levels.

The ketone diet is not recommended for pregnant women or for certain medications.

Ketogenic diet: menu of the week

Nutritionists advise using the principle of diversity. A classic example of a ketogenic diet for a week.


  • breakfast - fatty cottage cheese without sugar and flour;
  • lunch: any meat garnished with vegetables;
  • for dinner: mushrooms or chicken with herbs.


  • breakfast - avocado salad with sour cream;
  • for lunch: meatballs with vegetables;
  • at night: grilled fish with asparagus.


  • breakfast - curd salad with vegetables;
  • for lunch: turkey with broccoli;
  • For dinner, you can make an American fish salad with celery stalks.


  • in the morning: scrambled eggs, bacon and fatty yogurt;
  • for lunch: chicken stewed in a sour cream sauce garnished with vegetables;
  • Dinner will consist of river fish.


  • for breakfast: cottage cheese without sugar;
  • for lunch: green buckwheat with meat;
  • at night: baked meat with vegetables.


  • breakfast - avocado salad dressed with yogurt;
  • for lunch: chicken cutlets garnished with vegetables;
  • for dinner: stews and herbs.


  • breakfast: hard-boiled eggs and fatty cottage cheese;
  • for lunch: stewed beef with mushrooms;
  • at night - chicken breast with fresh vegetables.

For an afternoon snack, you can eat nuts, avocados, berries, cheese, drink mineral water.

Keto Diet Menu Recipes

The most common and simplest dish on the keto menu is scrambled eggs and bacon or cheese for breakfast. For lunch, you can have a serving of any meat with herbs, green beans. Fish can be eaten in any form with vegetables for dinner. As a snack, you can eat a handful of walnuts. Portions can be both large and small, as long as the body is saturated.

Here are some simple, complete meals that don't require any additional snacks.

ketogenic diet recipes

Fish salad:any fatty fish is cooked or boiled, cut into pieces, added: eggs, pickled cucumbers, onions, mayonnaise orsour cream 20%, you can add a few lettuce stalks.

Chicken with bacon, stewed in sour cream with mushrooms: bacon strips are fried in olive oil or sunflower oil, removed from the pan while cooking and chicken pieces are placed in their place the breasts, fried for a few minutes until golden brown, add: water, chopped onion, mushrooms, fried bacon, sour cream, spices and everything cooks for a few more minutes.

Curd salad:Finely chop the fresh cucumber, onion and Chinese cabbage, add salt and seasoning, let it rest for 10 minutes, so thatvegetables give juice and add the fatty curd, pour sour cream mixed with mayonnaise.

There are many recipes for the keto diet, everyone can choose the best option among the allowed products.

This diet can be delicious and varied.

How to quit the ketogenic diet

After completing the course, in order not to undermine your health and usefully exit the ketogenic diet, it is necessary to gradually reduce the amount of fat consumed. To maintain metabolism and prevent the body from entering a state of stress, it is necessary to gradually increase the intake of carbohydrates and proteins in small portions.

Along with fat, calorie intake is reduced. Vegetables, cereals are gradually introduced into the diet, avoiding sugar and flour products. The daily carbohydrate intake in the first days of the diet should be 70 to 100 grams, it is desirable to leave the protein intake at the same level.

Drink plenty of water to stay hydrated.

Nutritionist opinions on the ketogenic diet

Nutritionist opinions on the ketogenic diet

Nutritionists consider the ketogenic diet to be universal not only for weight loss and weight loss, but also recommend it to improve health. With adequate and strict adherence to the diet, the diet should contain: 80% fat, 10% protein and 10% carbohydrates.

Dietitians have written more than 30 scientific articles and years of research have shown that the ketogenic diet significantly accelerates the reduction of insulin in the blood, a hormone that promotes the accumulation of subcutaneous fat. The diet improves appetite control, the diet suppresses the production of the warming hormone, which causes hunger. The muscle mass remains the same, the amount of subcutaneous fat is reduced.

Scientific studies have shown that for the treatment of certain cardiovascular diseases, the ketogenic diet is a non-pharmacological treatment.

Eating good nutrition is not only the key to losing weight, it also has a beneficial effect on the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, heart, liver, and kidneys.

A balanced diet rich in fat and moderate in protein and carbohydrates for a long time, supports a healthy lifestyle, prolongs youth, helps maintain good physical shape. Doctors recommend walking more outdoors, sleeping through the night, and there are only natural products.